What Was the Weight Watchers Program Like in the 1960s?

Have you ever wondered what the Weight Watchers Program was like in the 1960s?

I picked up a copy of this old Weight Watchers Cookbook from 1966 and have really enjoyed taking an inside peek at what Weight Watchers was like back when it began in the early 1960s.

In addition to lots of recipes, the book includes an introduction by Weight Watchers founder, Jean Nidetch, along with the plan’s “Rules” and sample menus.

All I can say is Weight Watchers has come a long long way in 50 years!

I’m not sure I would have lasted long on this original plan, with all it’s rules and restrictions.

Though clearly healthy and based on the nutritional wisdom of the time, it was definitely a deprivation based “diet” with a long list of “Illegal Foods.”

I found myself getting anxious just reading the long list of foods that were not allowed, several of which I eat regularly. I’m glad that I originally lost weight in the 1990s on a much more liberal version of “exchanges” and am now following Weight Watchers 360 and it’s flexible PointsPlus approach to eating to keep the weight off!

In the book’s introduction, Nidetch describes her years of struggle to lose weight. Anybody who has ever been overweight and worked to lose it, will relate to her story. As someone who was overweight by the time I was in 4th grade and “matronly” looking by the time I was in my late 20s, I certainly did.

The original Weight Watchers Program was based on a diet developed by the New York City Department of Health’s Bureau of Nutrition that Nidetch followed after registering with on of its obesity clinics. When friends wanted the details of how she had lost weight, she began to meet with them at her house, where she shared what she knew and they talked over their common problems related to overeating.

When the little group got too big to meet at her house, she rented a basement, and then a large meeting hall in 1963, and the rest, as they say, is history!

Weight Watchers Cookbook 1967

Weight Watchers Cookbook 1967

The Underlying Concepts of the First Weight Watchers Plan

1. Overeating is a habit. And like any habit, it can be conquered, if you have the will and drive to get started.

2. Proceed with your weight loss one meal at a time, one day at a time, one week at a time. Taking one step at a time, strengthening yourself slowly, you can not fail.

3. The next time you begin to bite into a candy bar, order a fattening dessert from a restaurant menu, walk into the bakery for a Danish pastry, stop and ask yourself: “Would I rather have this or a slim young figure?”

4. No crash dieting. Because you must learn new habits of eating, it is useless for you to go on a “crash” or “fad” diet or to take diet pills or appetite depressants of any kind. “Why learn to use a crutch when you can learn how to walk properly?”

5. Don’t surround yourself with temptation by buying cookies and candies. Even a four-year-old can understand, if told, that mommy needs help because she wants to become his “beautiful mommy.”

6. We are constantly playing games with ourselves and in serious denial about why we are heavy and/or not losing weight. The book is peppered with illustrations depicting some of the favorite rationalizations heard through the years, which are timeless.

7. No alcohol. No skipping meals. No counting calories.

8. You can stick to the program and successfully lose weight no matter what your home, social, business, or school life may be.

9. Stick to the plan and the plan will work.

10. Once you lose the weight, follow the maintenance plan so you learn to keep the weight off.

11. To be successful on the program, will require your desperation, your sincerity and your cooperation and your patience.

Rule and Menus of the Original 1960s Weight Watchers Program

1. Eat only the foods listed in your Menu Plan, in the quantities specified and at the meals specified. Weigh your portions until you can judge them accurately.

2. Eggs. Limit them to 4-7 per week. They may be taken only at breakfast or lunch; not at dinner.

3. Cheese. Only hard cheese or pot, cottage or farmer cheese is allowed and only at breakfast or lunch.

4. Fish. You must eat a minimum of 5 group A fish meals each week for lunches or dinners.

5. Meat and Poultry. Provided you use the specified number of fish meals, some of your lunches and dinners may be selected from Group A meats and poultry or Group B fish.

6. Limited Vegetables. Must eat one a day, at dinner only, 1 portion only. Vary your selection from day to day. One serving is 4 ounces, or 1/2 cup or 1 medium sized.

7. Unlimited Vegetables may be taken at any time. These include most of your non-starchy vegetables.

8. Condiments and seasonings such as bouillon, herbs, and spices, salt, pepper, and paprika, vinegar and wine vinegar, tea, coffee, horseradish, soy sauce, lemons, limes, etc, are unlimited.

9. Fruit. Three to five servings a day, depending on age and gender. One daily fruit must be either orange or grapefruit. One half-cup or 1 medium orange or apple or 1/2 cantaloupe or grapefruit, or 1/4 medium-sized pineapple or 2-inch wedge of honeydew melon count as 1 fruit. No bananas, cherries, watermelon, dried fruit or grapes.

10. Milk. Powdered skim milk, buttermilk, or evaporated skim milk must be included in your daily program, according to the amount specified for your age/gender.

11. Bread. Eat enriched or whole grain packaged bread according to the amount allowed for your age/gender. No rolls, bagels, biscuits, muffins, crackers, cereals or special breads.

12. Do not eat or drink the following except for legal recipes given in this book:

  • alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, whiskey
  • avocado
  • bacon or back fat
  • bagels
  • biscuits
  • cake
  • candy
  • cereals
  • coconut
  • cookies
  • crackers
  • cream cheese
  • doughnuts
  • fried foods
  • gefilte fish
  • gravy
  • honey
  • ice cream
  • ices
  • jam
  • jello
  • jelly
  • ketchup
  • mayonnaise
  • muffins
  • nuts
  • oil
  • olives
  • pancakes
  • peanut butter
  • pies
  • popcorn
  • potato chips
  • pretzels
  • puddings
  • rolls
  • salad dressings (except for those given in this book)
  • smoked meat or fish
  • soda, ginger ale, cola drinks
  • sugar and syrups
  • waffles
  • yogurt

1960s Weight Watchers Menu Plan for Women

Breakfast: 1 egg or 1 ounce hard cheese or 2 ounces fish or 1/4 cup cottage or pot cheese; 1 slice enriched bread

Lunch: 4 ounces fish (canned or fresh) or lean meat or poultry or 2/3 cup (6 ounces) cottage cheese or pot cheese or 4 ounces farmer cheese or 2 ounces hard cheese or 2 eggs; All the unlimited vegetables you want; 1 slice enriched bread

Dinner: 6 ounces cooked lean meat or fish or poultry; 1 portion limited vegetables; All of the unlimited vegetables you want

Must Be Taken At Some Time During the Day: A total of 3 fruits (one of them orange or grapefruit); 2 cups skim milk or buttermilk or 1 cup skimmed evaporated milk

May Be Taken At Any Time of the Day: Any unlimited foods, beverages, etc.

1960s Weight Watchers Program Menu Suggestions

Sample Breakfasts

1) Half Cantaloupe, Eggs, Sunny-Side Up on Toast
2) Pineapple Quarter, Two Ounces Tuna Fish on Toast
3) Cottage Cheese (2 ounces), Fresh Grapefruit Sections, Lettuce Bed, Toast
4) Fresh Fruit Cup (1/2 cup), Scrambled Egg WW, Toast
5) Broiled Half Grapefruit, Salmon (2 ounces), Toast
6) Fresh Juice of One Orange, Melted Cheese (1 ounce) on Toast
7) Half Grapefruit, WW French Toast

Sample Lunches

1) Bean-Sprout Soup, Shrimp (4 ounces), Toast
2) Tuna Fish, Mixed Lettuce w/ Radishes, Celery and String Beans, WW Dressing, Toast
3) Tomato Juice, Broiled Salmon (4 ounces), WW Cucumber Sauce, Lettuce, Toast
4) Fresh Fruit Salad, Cottage Cheese (3 ounces), Toast
5) Broiled Hamburger, One Slice Toast, Relish
6) Melted Open Cheese Sandwich on 1 Slice Toast, Fruit
7) Two Eggs on Toast, Fruit

Sample Dinners

1) WW Swordfish Diablo, Chinese Vegetables, Mushrooms, WW Lemon Gelatin
2) Tomato Bouillon, WW Butterfly Shrimp Scampi, Larde Tossed Salad, Eggplant
3) Curried Cream of Kale Soup, Broiled Trout, Carrots, Broiled Mushrooms, Stewed Fruit (1/2 cup)
4) WW Braised Beef Roll-Ups, Cucumber Salad, WW Basil Salad Dressing, WW Strawberry Ice
5) WW Beef Ragout, Mushrooms as desired, Ginger Melon Mold
6) WW Frankfurter Casserole Creole, Cole Slaw
7) Escarole Soup, Chicken Cacciatora, Herbed Zucchini, Maple Bavarian Cream

Helpful Hints While Dieting

Many of these concepts have definitely stood the test of time:

1. Do Not Count Calories. 200 calories of cake is never a substitute for a 200-calorie lunch. You can’t bargain with the diet.

2. Weight Your Food Carefully. You’ll be amazed at how much more will be on your plate when you weigh food rather than guess at it’s weight.

3. Carry Your “Before” Picture and a mental image of your ideal figure with you at all times.

4. Weigh Yourself Once A Week Only. Weight can fluctuate daily for various reasons. It is the weekly average weight loss that is important. Be sure to weigh yourself at the same time each week, on the same scale, under the same conditions.

5. Take Advantage of the “Free” Foods allowed in this diet. Never allow yourself to be hungry.

6. Be Aware That You Are Learning New Eating Habits even away from home. It is possible to follow this diet plan in any restaurant anywhere in the world, if you really want to.

7. Do Not Allow sympathetic thin friends or envious fat ones to give you “permission to deviate from your diet plan.”

8. Follow The Diet Honestly. The key to successful weight loss and its maintenance is learning discipline and control.

9. Think Before You Eat. When tempted to gobble, just stop and count to ten and look at your “before” picture, remember your reasons for wanting to reduce.

10. Be Patient!

Do you have any favorite memories and or recipes from the old Weight Watchers program to share? I’d love to hear from you!

Share Your Favorite Recipes


Weight Watchers Cookbook (1967)

Related Articles

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...


  1. says

    I joined WW as an older teen in the 70s. If I recall correctly, my plan called for a *mandatory* serving of liver each week. I tried twice, but I just couldn’t do it. :)

    The other thing I remember is that hot dogs were permitted in 4-oz. portions, which required eating 4 hot dogs. Since I was a teen at the time and didn’t know any better, I thought this was a great idea! LOL

    • says


      Thanks for sharing! That’s too funny!! I can’t even imagine eating liver, never mind weekly!! I noticed a few frankfurter recipes in the cookbook as well :-)

  2. Shauna says

    I remember my mom doing this plan when I was a kid. She had to make her own ketchup using a WW recipe because regular ketchup was not allowed. I’m so happy to have the flexibility of the new program!

  3. says

    That brings back memories for me! I joined WW in 1977 and remember that food program well. Things have changed for the better! I just found your blog and look forward to checking out your fabulous recipe collection.

  4. Karen says

    I was on it in the 70′s. Not only were you supposed to eat liver once a week but it couldn’t be fried nor could you have bacon or onions with it. I think I broke that rule. You could have half a small banans once a week too.

  5. TroobeeSez says

    Omigod! I remember the liver! These days, doctors advise pregnant women (or those wishing to become preg) to NEVER eat liver! It is after all the thing that filters out all the air pollution, lead tainted field grass, and unpure water the beef cattle may ingest, right? I actually think the same goes for small children. My kid has never had liver!

    I remember we would buy the biggest honkin’ bananas we could find, as we were allowed only half of one. And the forbidden avocado? That’s got the healthiest fat you can consume. Kind of hard to over do it. Expensive too. Plus it made you too full to even think about scarfing own any cookies.

  6. Debi says

    Thank you for posting this. In 1971 my mom joined WW for the first time. We all ate dinners that she ate and I did the complete program with her. She eventually lost 91 pounds; I lost 35. We both gained it all back and then some, but remember that time as the most successful weight loss experience we’d ever had.

    My favorite substitute meal was bean sprout spaghetti. Just a simple marinara over steamed bean sprouts. We (Mom, sister and I) were just talking about how much we liked it this weekend past.

    I started my current weight loss experience in December 2009. My goal was to lose 30 pounds a year until it was all gone (total 112 pounds to the highest WW goal). I had been on and off WW several times since 1971, including the Points program, and successfully lost 25 of the first year’s attempt by May of 2010. In May I moved in with my parents to help my mom and dad as my dad was dying of cancer. I rejoined WW then because I knew I would need support through that summer. I did reach my goal of losing 30 pounds that year and the next. In fact, by the end of the second year I was down 72 pounds.

    I’ve been in a slump for the last year-and-a-half. Seeing this old WW program helps me pinpoint the dietary issues. I have suspected for years that I am one of the people who just can’t have many carbohydrates. When I am reminded of how few carbs the old WW program allowed us (and how quickly I lost and how good I felt during the process), then compare it to what I eat with the Points Plus program, I realize that I need to readjust my choices to include fewer carbs.

    Again, thanks for this piece. It is really helping me re-think where I’m going and how to get there.

    • says

      Hi Debi,

      Thanks for your thoughtful comment. And congratulations on your 72 pound weight loss. Knowing that you have been successful with weight loss in the past will help propel you toward your finish line. I can feel it.

      I lost weight on WW back in the early 1990s when it was still an exchange plan, before it switched to Points and was very successful. It taught me about portions and eating a healthy balanced diet and was relatively low in carbs, which was key to my success because I am carb sensitive too!

      It’s true that the old WW plan was really low in carbs. Great awareness on your part! I’ll be curious to see how eating fewer carbs effects your weight loss.

      Please, check back and let me know.



  7. Christine says

    There is a typo in the breakfast example. The amount of cottage cheese for breafast was 1/4 cup, not 1/2 cup. Just thought I’d clear it up.

  8. says

    Hello, I have been low carb since March 2011.
    I lost weight the first time back in the early 70s on W.W. Loved every minute of that time in my life. The first Tab I drank tasted like warmed over tires but grew to love it. It was the high light of my week, the weekly weigh – ins! Loved, loved that time in my youth. Done a lot of living since then. Lost and regained tons.

    I see no count limit on letters here and I don’t want to run out of spabe. Plus I don’t want to bore your readers.
    I like the old w.w.
    I also like LC.
    Combinding the two seems to be a good marriage.
    I could not lose on the Points system. Very carb senitive.
    I am trying to find the list of free food.
    My small newbie forum is a small group of, so far women, working to find a healthier way of eating for life. And W.W. is the first place I am turning to.
    I have lost over 100 pounds (this time) on the old Atkins plan. From the late 60′s.
    Have been Induction 68 / 72 the whole time. And I am burned out. Plus my body is screaming, ENOUGH! I need a good forever plan and am in search of the old W. W. plan from the early 70s.
    It is my opinion W.W. is the best well blanced eating for life plan there is. I gained trying to do the Points because of portion control, the lack of.
    I am searching for the unlimited list of veggies. Is there anyone here that can help me find it. And do remember as others do that that banana had to be small. :)
    2, 4, 6 ozs meat or cheese…
    Some things I remember, but not enough.I have recently started counding kcals.
    A glass of tomato juice once a day was free, right?
    I’m a diabetic now. Unlike the other times I have done WW. I will have to watch carbs. But for now I am taking Metformin. Even on the lowest carb count day. I was taking 500mg once a day. Now I am back to 1,000 two times a day.
    Before losing so much weight (this time) I was on 2 different kinds of insulin along with the pills. Very carb senitive.
    Thank you for reading and hoping someone can lead me to the free list of acceptable foods.
    Please forgive typos and horrific miss spelling. :)
    Thank you,

    • says

      Hi Marylouise,

      Thanks for sharing!

      I have the original WW Cookbook from 1966, which outlines the Program back then including the list of unlimited vegetables. I will list it for you here:

      1966 Weight Watchers Program Unlimited Vegetables:

      beet greens
      chinese cabbage
      green and red pepper
      mung bean sprouts
      mustard greens
      squash (greeen)
      string beans

      Other unlimited foods included:

      Bouillon cubes or envelopes
      soy sauce
      herbs and spices
      sugar substitute
      tea or coffee without added sugar or milk
      non caloric carbonated sodas
      club soda

  9. says

    Martha, Thank you so much for that list!
    It will help me so much!
    Would you happen to have any more info about the plan from then?

    The first timie I lost on WW, was 1970. The second time 1973. In 1973 I was pg with my second son. I weighed less when I had him than I did before I got pg with him. Doctor advised me to get on a good eating plan because I got too close to becoming diabetic.

    My son was born perfect! Not too fat, not too skinny. He was just right! :)
    He has excelled all of his life. And I credit some to good blood line and the rest to eating a healthy way.

    I never felt deprived of the foods I liked to eat. Take pizza. I did it the WW way. Slice of toasted white bread. Teas. of ketchup. Store bought. Oregano. And my oz of hard cheese.

    I made my own dressing!
    I can’t remember much about the foods I ate but they were all very good.
    I made a cabbage soup too. Used beef bouillon cubes. Great hot tastie soup.

    I do know the starchy veggies were limited but can not remember the kinds or the amounts. If you can post them it would really help me!

    The fruit is also giving me a hard time. I only remember the half of a banana. Or a small one, once a week.

    Thank you Martha for all of your help!

  10. says

    1 cup skimmed evaporated milk

    Does anyone know what that means?
    Skimmed E. milk??

    I would like to put my picture in here. If I can figure out how to? :)
    My before :( and after is a pix to see! :) LOL

    I ate a pear today.
    A fresh picked pear.
    Best thing that has came into my mouth in too many months to count.
    I have been eating:
    green olives

    For a very long, long, long time.

    • says

      Hi Marylouise,

      Most of the stores I shop at sell evaporated milk with varying fat contents: Regular evaporated milk and skimmed or fat free evaporated milk. Hope this helps.

      Congrats on eating a fresh picked pear. It sounds delicious. Our bodies love all the nutritious stuff found in fruits and vegetables!! Your body must be smiling on the inside :-)



      If you want to email me your before and after pics, I’d be happy to add them into this post!!

  11. Marylouise says

    OH , well my goodness. I wasn’t even thinking about it like that. Yes I do know they sell it in 3 levels. Thanks for raising the shade over my eyes. I feel silly.

    I will send you my before and after.
    I’m going to be busy this weekend but I will be back.

    Oh I am doing great on my new woe. :)

  12. says

    I have lost almost 3 pounds this week!
    Loving my food now!
    I had gotten burned out eating the 68 / 72 Atkins Induction. And yes my body is smiling at me today.
    I just simply stopped losing after over 2 years of this WOE.
    I felt failure staring me in my face.
    Thats to finding you and the free veggie list and much more info I feel I just minght get back into the 50′s!

    I’ve fought weight porblems since I was 12 years old. I am 62 now and my body can not handle seeing 300 again!
    It will kill me!

  13. deloris ball says

    i was a member in the late “70′ and love to tell my story. my daughter had just entered 1st grade.1978 i think.her teacher took me to weight watchers THAT IS A WHOLE WONDERFUL STORY IN ITS SELF> we are still friends 35 years later.i was always the last one standing when we were ask if we got in all of are foods including the liver and all the fish meals.i lost a 110 lbs.before my daughter got out of the first grade.i had been XXL most of my child hood and my adult life.i gained it all back because i never learned how to maintain .my job went to nights and then a few other thing got in the away.but it was still it was one of the best times in my life.

    • says

      Loved to read your story, Deloris or is it Delores? (I noticed two different spellings, so am not sure!) I know what you mean about learning to maintain. I think that can be way trickier than the losing! At least it was for me :-) Thanks for taking the time to stop by and share your story about WW back in the 70s!

  14. Lorraine says

    I lost nearly 50 pounds in the early 70′s using the original WW. I still have the book but lost the “tip sheets” printed above. Thanks.

    I have recently been battling post-menopausal weight gain with no help from my doctor (who I have changed – she was worse than useless).

    I am starting the old diet with the tip sheets TODAY starting with a trip to the supermarket after work and a clean-out of my kitchen cabinets. Wish me luck.

  15. Kay says

    When I first started work in the mid-1980s I put on about 15 kilos. I started doing the WW diet from a book loaned to me by my father-in-law, who had been put on the diet after a heart attack. I loved that diet, it was so easy to follow (I also ignored the liver requirement, lol) and combined with walking to the train station and back every day (roundtrip 4 kms) instead of catching the bus, I lost up to a kilo per week. I have never felt healthier or more full of energy! I didn’t even join WW, just followed the book and teamed up with a buddy who was doing Jenny Craig.
    20 years and 2 kids later, the weight had crept back on. I joined WW and tried the Points system; I hated it! After a few days of feeling headachy and starving, I figured out the Starting Plan was about 1200 calories – not enough for a 5’10″ 105kg woman like me. Also I felt the new system didn’t encourage a healthy balanced diet the way the old one did. I know people it’s worked for, but it doesn’t suit me.
    I was able to find a lot of the old WW recipe books second-hand. Some of them include the original plan. I still find though, that I have to combine daily exercise with watching what I eat, in order to be successful.

    • says

      Hi Kay,

      So, great to hear from you! Glad you were able to find the old WW recipe books. I’ve got several of them that I still use quite a lot. I know what you mean about the new points plan. It works great for some. But, I agree that it doesn’t teach you the basics of healthy balanced eating the way the old plan did. I’m glad I originally did WW and learned the basics of good eating and portion control in the process!

      Thanks so much for taking the time to share with us your experience here. I appreciate it :-)

  16. Maureen says

    I remember those days….terrible, I was in High School. The Book I have is different. When I joined I was given the Weight Watchers Program Handbook for Ladies and then I purchased for .50 cents Mona’s Recommended Recipes. There is one recipe that I still make today and it is the TUNA SURPRISE, – For Lunch ONLY. 1 can French style green beans, drained, 2 oz. tuna, drained, 1 oz. hard cheese, diced, 1 tsp. dehydrated onion flakes, 1 tsp. mustard, Salt and Pepper to taste. Combine all ingredients, put in a small baking dish (we used foil pie pan) and bake at 350 for 30 minutes. We also made the Cabbage Soup, I now make it with ground turkey to provide protein. I loved reading this article. Thanks you so much for posting.

  17. Sandra Nagy says

    I joined the original Weight Watchers with my mother in 1968, at the old Singers Hotel in Spring Valley, New York. Did any of you attend that one? If you did, you will remember the leader, Sheila. She was a crack-up of the Joan Rivers type. The meeting was a large one, held in the hotel’s theater with velvet curtains and a real stage. I wasn’t quite overweight enough to join, so Sheila adjusted my height. At two inches shorter, I qualified. I just wanted to lose ten pounds. I lost twenty-one pounds in sixteen weeks on the original program and received a beautiful onyx pin with a single “diamond” and a fancy WW carved into it. The pin was for the first ten pounds and the “diamond” was for the second ten. I still have it. It’s really beautiful. I loved the original program.

    • says

      Hi Sandra,

      Thanks for sharing your early WW memories with us here!I can only imagine what it would have been like to attend a WW meeting in a theater! Your onyx pin sounds lovely :-)

  18. DeAnna Haymans says

    I was just recopying my WW plan from my mother but I have lost the last pages. I have everything except the recipes. I had used it in 1989 before I got married and lost over 50 pounds. I would love to do it again. I am interested in finding the recipes that were in the back for the dressing, catsup and the blueberry pancakes just to see them again. Does anyone know where I can find them? Thanks.

  19. Bailey says

    I’m too young to have attended WW pre-points.
    I never had success with the points and by chance I found the book from ’66 secondhand here in Denmark.
    It made all the difference and I just love the simple program.
    Btw in Denmark we have an organisation that is much like the old WW. It started when WW stopped activities in DK in 1981.

    • says

      Hi Bailey,

      How interesting! Thanks for taking the time to comment. Why do you think you were unsuccessful with WW points? Is it too complicated? I first joined WW pre-points but with a program not as limited as the old ’66 program. It taught me about healthy balanced eating. I learned how many servings of fruits, vegetables, proteins, starches I should be eating and portion sizes. That knowledge has made all the difference.

      I think you are right. Simple is better!

  20. Robert says

    I joined Weight Watchers in 1980 when peanut butter and wine became “legal” (Weight Watcher language back then.) However the rest of the original plan was still in place. And there were weird concepts that you could use raw onions but NOT cook them. I guess cooking them released the sugars. And yes, you had to have ONE liver meal a week and FIVE fish meals. There was a woman in our group that hated fish so much, she would throw tuna into the blender and make a tuna fish shake and drink it. The Points Plus program is incredible by comparison and far more sensible.

    • says

      Hi Robert. Thanks for sharing your WW recollections. I get such a kick out of reading them. It’s amazing how far Weight Watchers has come through the decades. I agree that the Points Plus program is far more sensible and realistic for how we live today.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>